Constructivism is an artistic philosophy originating in Russia in 1919. It rejected the idea of autonomous art.Construction ART was first used to describe work of Alexander Rochenko.Constructivism was first recognised as a term in Naum Gabos Realistic Manifesto 1920

The Realistic manifesto was written by sculptor Naum Gabo.The manifesto laid out theories aboutartistic expression. The manifesto focused largely as divorcing art forms from conventions such as lines, colour and mass.The manifesto urged that art should be with man every waking minute of his life












Kazemir Malevich  could be considedred the grandfather of soviet constructivism.Before constructivism became a form of art he was founding its forerunner,Supramatism.Malecich did not care if his work represented reality or not.Desiring only to “free art from the burden of the object”He used largelt geometric shapes as above.Malevich thought that the purest form of artwere squares as shown in many of his works.The work is very visually pleasing but does not represent anything at all concrete


There was an attempt to change constructivism into a “useful” form such as propaganda but not many followed.Eventually ,the Cocstructivist movement,which worked tirelessly for the glory of the union was eventually stopped by an order from  Stalin.This ended the soviet Constructivist movement


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Bauhaus was a school open from 1919 to 1933 which comined fine arts and crafts  with a unique approach to design.The founder of Bauhaus was by an architect named Walter Gropius.The Bauhaus style became one of the biggest influences in Modern design and architenture.

The Bauhaus had lecturers called Masters and the only female master was Gunta Stolzl.She had a fundamental role in the Bauhaus weaving workshopThe school was constantly attacked as the Nazi Party gained more power and the school broke its own ideology Stolzl was asked to leave Bauhaus due to increasing political pressure.The Nazis officially closed the school a year later

The African chair by Stolzl was made of painted wood with a colourful textile weave,the chair embodies the spirit of the early like no other piece .She worked together with Marcel Breuer,it was the first time she had worked with him.Stolzl produced the fabric and threaded the material to the frame.

Paul Klee was another highly regarded Master at BauhausHis style was influenced  by movements in art including expressionism ,cubism and surrealism.Klee taught at the Bauhaus from 1921 to 1931. He was a “master” in stained glass and mural painting workshops

Klees depication of a dog baying at the moon displays a harmonious arrangement of three distinct forms,a dog,the moon and in unusual visulaization of sound ,the dogs howl extended.The dog’s howl assumes a dominant pictoral role, winding and bending up into the air like smoke

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The founder of  the futuristic movement was Marienetti who founded the Futuristic Manifesto in 1909. The Italian artists involved expressed themselves in all forms of art including sculpture, painting,architecture and cooking.

The “Dynamism of a dog on a leash” This piece expresses activity and a “blur of movement”Balla was the artist and defined a type of dynamism that captured physical motion in the painting

The image below isthe first futuristic painting in which Balla defined his position as if invisual manifesto.He divided the movements of a woman walking her dog into a multiple of separate motion sequeencesA horse did not have four legs but twenty











The manifesto of futurism had a list of eleven rules or targets including the advocation of passion and aggression in all pieces and destroying utilitarianism also to glorify war as a form of cleansing and hygiene. He does seem to be a facist but this is overlooked in his work today

Futurism influenced many other twentieth century art movements includine ART DECO and CONSTRUCTIVISM.Futurism is said to have died out with the death of Marietti butbthe ideals of futurism remain significant in modern culture  with the emphasis of youth,speed and power












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Cold War Modernism

Art and Design were used in The Cold War  to influence the minds or the two opposing sides respectively.Both sides believed theirs to be utopia and the ideas of the opposing side narrow minded and evil.Exhibitions were widely used as propaganda.In the poster displayed below ,US Baut by Max Bill shows propaganda for both sides.It is designed in order with organization and mathmatical grids.It is both Static and active and shows contrasting contemporary relationships.

The geometrical shapes frame  images of American skyscrapers and highways.



















At the height of The Cold War ,art produced in divided germany contested the cultural demarcation of the East and The West.A group of artists had tried to take visual art beyond the cruded separations of “The Iron Curtain”Examples which are figured in the pice below











In 1940  there was an outcry when German bombers virtually destroyed the city of Rotterdam.When a Russian artist called Zadkine returned he was aghast and planned to build a monument for the city. The Model for “The Destroyed City” was created.Zadkine was a stretcher bearer for the french army   during world war 2 and this was from which he drew his inspirations.The sculpture represents a man without a heart representative of the communists.The statue is an impressive six meters high and also depicts human anguish and despair at the hands of others.It may also be seen as a cry for the city to rise up again from its ruins













The Cold War exhibition at the Victoria and Albert museum in Londonnholds many remarkable and interesting pieces.One of the most Striking in meaning and wit is “in the name of peace they travelled halfway round the world”enemies of Russian soviet socialism travelling far and wide to attempt to bring peace. The chracters  are leaders in their fields .


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A firm devoted to art with function. Their  passion is for design and embrace of new technologies making a dynamic unity of imagary and The collaborative studio of Rick Valicenti – founder of Thirst (1981) and Thirstype (1993) – Thirst/3ST is small collective of designers, typographers, writers, illustrators and programmers with a large span of successful graphic design work. Known for their playful, curious spirit, and intelligent risk-taking, the collective of work could easily fill a few design books. In fact, their portfolio site is a simple digital reference to flipping through large print pages. Very professional images throughout the work, and play, found inside.

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Why Not Associates

 For  nearly two decades, why not associates has been creating innovative work for clients large and small. our team works in many different media
on many types of projects, including corporate identity, digital design,
motion graphics and television commercial direction, editorial design, environmental design, publishing, and public art.

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Susan Kare

Susan Kare is the graphic designer who designed most of the interface elements for the APPLE MACINTOSH in the 1980s

Kare was born in New York

Kare joined and worked for Apple Inc in the 1980s

She is the designer of many of the typefaces,icons and original advertising material for the original Macintosh Operating The Museum of Modern Art store in New York City has begun carrying stationery and notebooks featuring her designs. Beginning February 7, 2007 she has produced icons for the “Gifts” feature of the popular social-networking website, Facebook.[10] Initially, profits from gift sales were donated to the Susan G. Komen for the Cure foundation, for the fight against breast cancer. After Valentine’s Day[when?], the gift selection was modified to include new and limited edition gifts that did not necessarily pertain to Valentine’s Day.[

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